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Article

Rosemary Extract and Essential Oil as Drink Ingredients: An Evaluation of Their Chemical Composition, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antioxidant Properties

1
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy & Chemistry of Natural Products, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
2
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
3
Tentoura Castro-G.P. Hahalis Distillery, 26225 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vassilis Dourtoglou
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123143
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 9 December 2021 / Accepted: 15 December 2021 / Published: 18 December 2021
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) is in high demand in the food and drink industries due to its distinct organoleptic properties. With the aim of evaluating the rosemary leaves as drink ingredients, both the essential oil and alcoholic (38%, v/v) extract were studied in terms of chemical composition, genotoxicity, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties. GC–MS analysis showed that the main volatile compounds in the essential oil were eucalyptol (40.1%), camphor (12.4%), and α-pinene (12.9%). LC–MS analysis revealed gallocatechin and rosmarinic acid as the main extract ingredients. Both the essential oil and the extract were not genotoxic (Ames test) against TA98 and TA100 at the dilutions of 5% and 90%, respectively; those dilutions were selected as the maximum possible ones in the drink industry. Their activity was investigated against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Adenovirus 35. Both were effective against Adenovirus and A. niger, even the essential oil at 5% (v/v). The extract at dilutions of 25–90% had more pronounced activity against tested bacteria than the essential oil at the dilutions of 5–100%; the essential oil at the dilution of 5% inhibited S. aureus growth. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid decolorization assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Both exhibited good antioxidant activity, but rosemary essential oil was far more effective than the extract. Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil and extract are safe and have beneficial biological properties. Therefore, they could serve as health-promoting ingredients in the drink industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: rosemary; essential oil; extract; antimicrobial; antiviral; acute toxicity; antioxidant; chemical characterization; eucalyptol rosemary; essential oil; extract; antimicrobial; antiviral; acute toxicity; antioxidant; chemical characterization; eucalyptol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Christopoulou, S.D.; Androutsopoulou, C.; Hahalis, P.; Kotsalou, C.; Vantarakis, A.; Lamari, F.N. Rosemary Extract and Essential Oil as Drink Ingredients: An Evaluation of Their Chemical Composition, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antioxidant Properties. Foods 2021, 10, 3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123143

AMA Style

Christopoulou SD, Androutsopoulou C, Hahalis P, Kotsalou C, Vantarakis A, Lamari FN. Rosemary Extract and Essential Oil as Drink Ingredients: An Evaluation of Their Chemical Composition, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antioxidant Properties. Foods. 2021; 10(12):3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123143

Chicago/Turabian Style

Christopoulou, Spyridoula D., Chrysa Androutsopoulou, Panagiotis Hahalis, Chrysoula Kotsalou, Apostolos Vantarakis, and Fotini N. Lamari. 2021. "Rosemary Extract and Essential Oil as Drink Ingredients: An Evaluation of Their Chemical Composition, Genotoxicity, Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antioxidant Properties" Foods 10, no. 12: 3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123143

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