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Electrochemical Study of Li-Ion Battery Anode (Graphite) and Cathode (NMC811) Surface Film Formation By in-Situ Scanning Probe Microscopy

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© 2020 ECS - The Electrochemical Society
ECS Meeting Abstracts, Volume MA2020-01, A02: Lithium Ion Batteries and Beyond Citation Saisameera Mitta and Ulrich Stimming 2020 Meet. Abstr. MA2020-01 143

2151-2043/MA2020-01/2/143

Abstract

Lithium ion battery usage has grown significantly in recent years. To obtain the best from the li-ion battery technology, it is important to understand both advantages and the limitations from the fundamental point of view. In lithium-ion batteries, layer structured graphite is the most commonly used anode material and NMC is one of the modern choices of cathode materials for high capacity Li-ion batteries in the electric vehicle applications [1,2,3].

During the first charging process, the electrochemical reduction of electrolyte components gets deposited on the surface of anode resulting solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer formation [4,5,6]. It is widely accepted that the batteries benefit from a proper SEI formation, as it can improve their lifetime, cycle life, power capability and safety [7].

Morphological structure of SEI layer formed on HOPG and cathode electrolyte interface (CEI) layer formed on NMC plays an important role in lithium-ion battery (LIB), particularly for its cyclability and safety. For the development of high-performance LIB's, it is crucial to understand the SEI layer formation on anode side [8] and the less studied corresponding layer formed on cathode side termed as CEI, whose composition and role are debated [9].

Microscopic techniques, which include scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are the most powerful tools to measure the electric current and surface topography [10,11]. Within this work, we present in-situ electrochemical atomic force microscopic (EC-AFM) studies of surface reaction and topographic evolution of SEI and CEI layers formed on HOPG and NMC811 substrates. EC-AFM morphological analysis is also complemented with XPS (X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy) characterisation for elemental composition, which brings a new insight in the comparison of SEI/CEI decomposition products.

Acknowledgements:

This work is partially supported by Faraday Institution (EP/S003053/1) and North-East Centre of Energy Materials-NECEM (EP/R021503/1) funded by EPSRC.

References:

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[7] P.B. Balbuena and Y.Wang, Lithium-ion batteries solid-electrolyte interface, imperial college press,2004.

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[9] L. Yao-min, G.N. Bruno, L. E. Jennifer, A.G. Andrew, J. Anal.Chem,2016,88,7171-7177.

[10] C. Shen, M. Buck, Beilstein J. Nanotechnol, 2014, 5, 258−267.

[11] C. Shen, I. Cebula, C. Brown, J. L. Zhao, M. Zharnikov, M. Buck, Chem. Sci, 2012, 3, 1858−1865.

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10.1149/MA2020-012143mtgabs
graphite cathode